Lunar Eclipses in Saros Series 130

This page lists all the lunar eclipses in saros series 130. The series contains 71 eclipses, occurring over 1262 years.

The following chart shows the position where the Moon is directly overhead at the maximum times of the total (in blue) and partial (in red) lunar eclipses (penumbral eclipses are omitted). Each eclipse will be visible approximately from the half of the Earth centred on that point. Note that we only have mapping data for eclipses from year 1 AD, so any eclipses prior to that date will be missing. Use the zoom controls on the left to zoom in and out; hover over a marker to see the area of visibility and summary information on that eclipse.

Note that eclipse dates are specified relative to UT. You have not selected a timezone for eclipse timings, so all times are shown in UT (essentially GMT).
10 Jun, 1416 AD
max: 11:51 UT
Penumbral Lunar Eclipse
(penum. mag. 0.02; Saros 130)
In this extremely marginal eclipse, the Moon barely clipped the edge of the Earth's penumbral shadow. This caused a microscopic darkening of just 2% of the Moon's disc for 48 minutes and 6 seconds, which was essentially impossible to see.
21 Jun, 1434 AD
max: 18:15 UT
Penumbral Lunar Eclipse
(penum. mag. 0.18; Saros 130)
In this extremely marginal eclipse, the Moon barely clipped the edge of the Earth's penumbral shadow. This caused a microscopic darkening of just 18% of the Moon's disc for 2 hours and 11 minutes, which was essentially impossible to see.
2 Jul, 1452 AD
max: 00:41 UT
Penumbral Lunar Eclipse
(penum. mag. 0.34; Saros 130)
This very subtle penumbral eclipse eclipse was essentially invisible to the naked eye; though it lasted 2 hours and 56 minutes, just 34% of the Moon's disc was in partial shadow (with no part of it in complete shadow).
13 Jul, 1470 AD
max: 07:09 UT
Penumbral Lunar Eclipse
(penum. mag. 0.50; Saros 130)
This very subtle penumbral eclipse eclipse was essentially invisible to the naked eye; though it lasted 3 hours and 29 minutes, just 50% of the Moon's disc was in partial shadow (with no part of it in complete shadow).
23 Jul, 1488 AD
max: 13:43 UT
Penumbral Lunar Eclipse
(penum. mag. 0.64; Saros 130)
This subtle penumbral eclipse eclipse may have been visible to a skilled observer at maximum eclipse. 64% of the Moon's disc was partially shaded by the Earth (none of it was in total shadow), which caused a gentle shadow gradient across its disc at maximum; the eclipse as a whole lasted 3 hours and 54 minutes.
3 Aug, 1506 AD
max: 20:21 UT
Penumbral Lunar Eclipse
(penum. mag. 0.79; Saros 130)
This subtle penumbral eclipse eclipse may have been visible to a skilled observer at maximum eclipse. 79% of the Moon's disc was partially shaded by the Earth (none of it was in total shadow), which caused a gentle shadow gradient across its disc at maximum; the eclipse as a whole lasted 4 hours and 15 minutes.
14 Aug, 1524 AD
max: 03:08 UT
Penumbral Lunar Eclipse
(penum. mag. 0.92; Saros 130)
At maximum eclipse, 92% of the Moon's disc was partially shaded by the Earth, which caused a slight shadow gradient across its disc; this subtle effect may have been visible to careful observers. No part of the Moon was in complete shadow. The eclipse lasted 4 hours and 32 minutes overall.
25 Aug, 1542 AD
max: 10:02 UT
Penumbral Lunar Eclipse
(penum. mag. 1.05; Saros 130)
In a rare total penumbral eclipse, the entire Moon was partially shaded by the Earth (though none of it was in complete shadow), and the shading across the Moon should have been quite visible at maximum eclipse. The penumbral phase lasted for 4 hours and 46 minutes in all, though for most of it, the eclipse was extremely difficult or impossible to see.
4 Sep, 1560 AD
max: 17:06 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.09; Saros 130)
A tiny bite out of the Moon may have been visible at maximum, though just 9% of the Moon was shadowed in a partial eclipse which lasted for 1 hour and 13 minutes. A shading across the moon from the Earth's penumbral shadow should have been visible at maximum eclipse.
16 Sep, 1578 AD
max: 00:19 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.19; Saros 130)
At maximum eclipse, a small bite out of the Moon should have been visible. The eclipse lasted for 1 hour and 44 minutes, with just 19% of the Moon in shadow at maximum.
6 Oct, 1596 AD
max: 07:43 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.27; Saros 130)
The Earth's shadow on the moon was clearly visible in this eclipse, with 27% of the Moon in shadow; the partial eclipse lasted for 2 hours and 3 minutes.
17 Oct, 1614 AD
max: 15:16 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.35; Saros 130)
The Earth's shadow on the moon was clearly visible in this eclipse, with 35% of the Moon in shadow; the partial eclipse lasted for 2 hours and 16 minutes.
27 Oct, 1632 AD
max: 22:59 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.41; Saros 130)
The Earth's shadow on the moon was clearly visible in this eclipse, with 41% of the Moon in shadow; the partial eclipse lasted for 2 hours and 25 minutes.
8 Nov, 1650 AD
max: 06:51 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.45; Saros 130)
The Earth's shadow on the moon was clearly visible in this eclipse, with 45% of the Moon in shadow; the partial eclipse lasted for 2 hours and 32 minutes.
18 Nov, 1668 AD
max: 14:51 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.49; Saros 130)
The Earth's shadow on the moon was clearly visible in this eclipse, with 49% of the Moon in shadow; the partial eclipse lasted for 2 hours and 37 minutes.
29 Nov, 1686 AD
max: 22:59 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.51; Saros 130)
The Earth's shadow on the moon was clearly visible in this eclipse, with 51% of the Moon in shadow; the partial eclipse lasted for 2 hours and 40 minutes.
11 Dec, 1704 AD
max: 07:11 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.53; Saros 130)
The Earth's shadow on the moon was clearly visible in this eclipse, with 53% of the Moon in shadow; the partial eclipse lasted for 2 hours and 42 minutes.
22 Dec, 1722 AD
max: 15:28 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.55; Saros 130)
The Earth's shadow on the moon was clearly visible in this eclipse, with 55% of the Moon in shadow; the partial eclipse lasted for 2 hours and 43 minutes.
1 Jan, 1741 AD
max: 23:46 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.56; Saros 130)
The Earth's shadow on the moon was clearly visible in this eclipse, with 56% of the Moon in shadow; the partial eclipse lasted for 2 hours and 45 minutes.
13 Jan, 1759 AD
max: 08:06 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.58; Saros 130)
The Earth's shadow on the moon was clearly visible in this eclipse, with 58% of the Moon in shadow; the partial eclipse lasted for 2 hours and 46 minutes.
23 Jan, 1777 AD
max: 16:23 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.59; Saros 130)
The Earth's shadow on the moon was clearly visible in this eclipse, with 59% of the Moon in shadow; the partial eclipse lasted for 2 hours and 48 minutes.
4 Feb, 1795 AD
max: 00:39 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.62; Saros 130)
The Moon was strikingly shadowed in this deep partial eclipse which lasted 2 hours and 50 minutes, with 62% of the Moon in darkness at maximum.
15 Feb, 1813 AD
max: 08:50 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.65; Saros 130)
The Moon was strikingly shadowed in this deep partial eclipse which lasted 2 hours and 53 minutes, with 65% of the Moon in darkness at maximum.
26 Feb, 1831 AD
max: 16:56 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.69; Saros 130)
The Moon was strikingly shadowed in this deep partial eclipse which lasted 2 hours and 56 minutes, with 69% of the Moon in darkness at maximum.
9 Mar, 1849 AD
max: 00:55 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.74; Saros 130)
The Moon was strikingly shadowed in this deep partial eclipse which lasted 3 hours and 1 minute, with 74% of the Moon in darkness at maximum.
20 Mar, 1867 AD
max: 08:48 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.80; Saros 130)
The Moon was strikingly shadowed in this deep partial eclipse which lasted 3 hours and 6 minutes, with 80% of the Moon in darkness at maximum.
30 Mar, 1885 AD
max: 16:34 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.88; Saros 130)
The Moon was strikingly shadowed in this deep partial eclipse which lasted 3 hours and 11 minutes, with 88% of the Moon in darkness at maximum.
12 Apr, 1903 AD
max: 00:12 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.97; Saros 130)
The Moon was almost covered by the Earth's shadow in a very deep partial eclipse, which lasted 3 hours and 17 minutes. With 97% of the Moon in shadow at maximum eclipse, this was quite a memorable event.
22 Apr, 1921 AD
max: 07:44 UT
Total Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 1.07; Saros 130)
A shallow total eclipse saw the Moon in relative darkness for 40 minutes and 6 seconds. The Moon was 7% of its diameter into the Earth's umbral shadow, and should have been significantly darkened. The partial eclipse lasted for 3 hours and 22 minutes in total.
3 May, 1939 AD
max: 15:11 UT
Total Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 1.18; Saros 130)
A shallow total eclipse saw the Moon in relative darkness for 1 hour and 2 minutes. The Moon was 18% of its diameter into the Earth's umbral shadow, and should have been significantly darkened. The partial eclipse lasted for 3 hours and 27 minutes in total.
13 May, 1957 AD
max: 22:30 UT
Total Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 1.30; Saros 130)
The Moon was plunged into darkness for 1 hour and 18 minutes, in a deep total eclipse which saw the Moon 30% of its diameter inside the Earth's umbral shadow. The visual effect of this depends on the state of the Earth's atmosphere, but the Moon may have been stained a deep red colour. The partial eclipse lasted for 3 hours and 32 minutes in total.
25 May, 1975 AD
max: 05:48 UT
Total Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 1.43; Saros 130)
The Moon was plunged into darkness for 1 hour and 28 minutes, in a deep total eclipse which saw the Moon 43% of its diameter inside the Earth's umbral shadow. The visual effect of this depends on the state of the Earth's atmosphere, but the Moon may have been stained a deep red colour. The partial eclipse lasted for 3 hours and 35 minutes in total.
4 Jun, 1993 AD
max: 13:00 UT
Total Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 1.56; Saros 130)
The Moon was plunged into darkness for 1 hour and 36 minutes, in a deep total eclipse which saw the Moon 56% of its diameter inside the Earth's umbral shadow. The visual effect of this depends on the state of the Earth's atmosphere, but the Moon may have been stained a deep red colour. The partial eclipse lasted for 3 hours and 38 minutes in total.
15 Jun, 2011 AD
17:24–23:00 UT
Total Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 1.70; Saros 130)
A dramatic total eclipse lasting 1 hour and 40 minutes plunged the full Moon into deep darkness, as it passed right through the centre of the Earth's umbral shadow. While the visual effect of a total eclipse is variable, the Moon may have been stained a deep orange or red colour at maximum eclipse. This was a great spectacle for everyone who saw it from Europe, Africa, southern Asia, and Australia. The partial eclipse lasted for 3 hours and 39 minutes in total.
26 Jun, 2029 AD
00:34–06:09 UT
Total Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 1.84; Saros 130)
A dramatic total eclipse lasting 1 hour and 42 minutes will plunge the full Moon into deep darkness, as it passes right through the centre of the Earth's umbral shadow. While the visual effect of a total eclipse is variable, the Moon may be stained a deep orange or red colour at maximum eclipse. This will be a great spectacle for everyone who sees it from most of the Americas and western Europe and Africa. The partial eclipse will last for 3 hours and 40 minutes in total.
7 Jul, 2047 AD
max: 10:34 UT
Total Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 1.75; Saros 130)
A dramatic total eclipse lasting 1 hour and 41 minutes will plunge the full Moon into deep darkness, as it passes right through the centre of the Earth's umbral shadow. While the visual effect of a total eclipse is variable, the Moon may be stained a deep orange or red colour at maximum eclipse. This will be a great spectacle for everyone who sees it. The partial eclipse will last for 3 hours and 39 minutes in total.
17 Jul, 2065 AD
max: 17:46 UT
Total Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 1.61; Saros 130)
A dramatic total eclipse lasting 1 hour and 37 minutes will plunge the full Moon into deep darkness, as it passes right through the centre of the Earth's umbral shadow. While the visual effect of a total eclipse is variable, the Moon may be stained a deep orange or red colour at maximum eclipse. This will be a great spectacle for everyone who sees it. The partial eclipse will last for 3 hours and 36 minutes in total.
29 Jul, 2083 AD
max: 01:02 UT
Total Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 1.48; Saros 130)
The Moon will be plunged into darkness for 1 hour and 30 minutes, in a deep total eclipse which will see the Moon 48% of its diameter inside the Earth's umbral shadow. The visual effect of this depends on the state of the Earth's atmosphere, but the Moon may be stained a deep red colour. The partial eclipse will last for 3 hours and 33 minutes in total.
9 Aug, 2101 AD
max: 08:22 UT
Total Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 1.35; Saros 130)
The Moon will be plunged into darkness for 1 hour and 21 minutes, in a deep total eclipse which will see the Moon 35% of its diameter inside the Earth's umbral shadow. The visual effect of this depends on the state of the Earth's atmosphere, but the Moon may be stained a deep red colour. The partial eclipse will last for 3 hours and 28 minutes in total.
20 Aug, 2119 AD
max: 15:47 UT
Total Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 1.22; Saros 130)
The Moon will be plunged into darkness for 1 hour and 7 minutes, in a deep total eclipse which will see the Moon 22% of its diameter inside the Earth's umbral shadow. The visual effect of this depends on the state of the Earth's atmosphere, but the Moon may be stained a deep red colour. The partial eclipse will last for 3 hours and 23 minutes in total.
30 Aug, 2137 AD
max: 23:19 UT
Total Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 1.11; Saros 130)
A shallow total eclipse will see the Moon in relative darkness for 48 minutes and 18 seconds. The Moon will be 11% of its diameter into the Earth's umbral shadow, and should be significantly darkened. The partial eclipse will last for 3 hours and 17 minutes in total.
11 Sep, 2155 AD
max: 06:57 UT
Total Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 1.00; Saros 130)
The Moon will barely edge into total eclipse for a very brief 2 minutes and 36 seconds. With the Moon just barely inside the Earth's umbral shadow, the Moon may be quite bright, but even so, this should be worth seeing. The partial eclipse will last for 3 hours and 11 minutes in total.
21 Sep, 2173 AD
max: 14:43 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.90; Saros 130)
The Moon will be almost covered by the Earth's shadow in a very deep partial eclipse, lasting 3 hours and 4 minutes. With 90% of the Moon in shadow at maximum eclipse, this will be quite a memorable event.
2 Oct, 2191 AD
max: 22:38 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.82; Saros 130)
The Moon will be strikingly shadowed in this deep partial eclipse lasting 2 hours and 57 minutes, with 82% of the Moon in darkness at maximum.
14 Oct, 2209 AD
max: 06:42 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.75; Saros 130)
The Moon will be strikingly shadowed in this deep partial eclipse lasting 2 hours and 51 minutes, with 75% of the Moon in darkness at maximum.
25 Oct, 2227 AD
max: 14:53 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.69; Saros 130)
The Moon will be strikingly shadowed in this deep partial eclipse lasting 2 hours and 45 minutes, with 69% of the Moon in darkness at maximum.
4 Nov, 2245 AD
max: 23:13 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.64; Saros 130)
The Moon will be strikingly shadowed in this deep partial eclipse lasting 2 hours and 40 minutes, with 64% of the Moon in darkness at maximum.
16 Nov, 2263 AD
max: 07:42 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.60; Saros 130)
The Moon will be strikingly shadowed in this deep partial eclipse lasting 2 hours and 36 minutes, with 60% of the Moon in darkness at maximum.
26 Nov, 2281 AD
max: 16:16 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.57; Saros 130)
The Earth's shadow on the moon will be clearly visible in this eclipse, with 57% of the Moon in shadow; the partial eclipse will last for 2 hours and 33 minutes.
8 Dec, 2299 AD
max: 00:57 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.55; Saros 130)
The Earth's shadow on the moon will be clearly visible in this eclipse, with 55% of the Moon in shadow; the partial eclipse will last for 2 hours and 31 minutes.
19 Dec, 2317 AD
max: 09:42 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.54; Saros 130)
The Earth's shadow on the moon will be clearly visible in this eclipse, with 54% of the Moon in shadow; the partial eclipse will last for 2 hours and 29 minutes.
30 Dec, 2335 AD
max: 18:31 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.53; Saros 130)
The Earth's shadow on the moon will be clearly visible in this eclipse, with 53% of the Moon in shadow; the partial eclipse will last for 2 hours and 28 minutes.
10 Jan, 2354 AD
max: 03:21 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.53; Saros 130)
The Earth's shadow on the moon will be clearly visible in this eclipse, with 53% of the Moon in shadow; the partial eclipse will last for 2 hours and 27 minutes.
21 Jan, 2372 AD
max: 12:11 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.52; Saros 130)
The Earth's shadow on the moon will be clearly visible in this eclipse, with 52% of the Moon in shadow; the partial eclipse will last for 2 hours and 26 minutes.
31 Jan, 2390 AD
max: 21:00 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.51; Saros 130)
The Earth's shadow on the moon will be clearly visible in this eclipse, with 51% of the Moon in shadow; the partial eclipse will last for 2 hours and 25 minutes.
12 Feb, 2408 AD
max: 05:46 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.50; Saros 130)
The Earth's shadow on the moon will be clearly visible in this eclipse, with 50% of the Moon in shadow; the partial eclipse will last for 2 hours and 24 minutes.
22 Feb, 2426 AD
max: 14:27 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.48; Saros 130)
The Earth's shadow on the moon will be clearly visible in this eclipse, with 48% of the Moon in shadow; the partial eclipse will last for 2 hours and 21 minutes.
4 Mar, 2444 AD
max: 23:03 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.45; Saros 130)
The Earth's shadow on the moon will be clearly visible in this eclipse, with 45% of the Moon in shadow; the partial eclipse will last for 2 hours and 17 minutes.
16 Mar, 2462 AD
max: 07:33 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.42; Saros 130)
The Earth's shadow on the moon will be clearly visible in this eclipse, with 42% of the Moon in shadow; the partial eclipse will last for 2 hours and 12 minutes.
26 Mar, 2480 AD
max: 15:55 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.37; Saros 130)
The Earth's shadow on the moon will be clearly visible in this eclipse, with 37% of the Moon in shadow; the partial eclipse will last for 2 hours and 5 minutes.
7 Apr, 2498 AD
max: 00:11 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.31; Saros 130)
The Earth's shadow on the moon will be clearly visible in this eclipse, with 31% of the Moon in shadow; the partial eclipse will last for 1 hour and 55 minutes.
18 Apr, 2516 AD
max: 08:18 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.23; Saros 130)
The Earth's shadow on the moon will be clearly visible in this eclipse, with 23% of the Moon in shadow; the partial eclipse will last for 1 hour and 42 minutes.
29 Apr, 2534 AD
max: 16:18 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.15; Saros 130)
At maximum eclipse, a small bite out of the Moon should be visible. The eclipse will last for 1 hour and 23 minutes, with just 15% of the Moon in shadow at maximum.
10 May, 2552 AD
max: 00:12 UT
Partial Lunar Eclipse
(umbral mag. 0.06; Saros 130)
A tiny bite out of the Moon may be visible at maximum, though just 6% of the Moon will be shadowed in a partial eclipse lasting for 50 minutes and 54 seconds. A shading across the moon from the Earth's penumbral shadow should be visible at maximum eclipse.
21 May, 2570 AD
max: 07:58 UT
Penumbral Lunar Eclipse
(penum. mag. 0.90; Saros 130)
The Moon will approach within 5% of the Earth's umbral shadow at maximum eclipse, with the overall eclipse lasting 3 hours and 52 minutes. While less dramatic than a partial eclipse (as no part of the Moon will be in complete shadow), a shading across the Moon should be readily visible to observers.
31 May, 2588 AD
max: 15:39 UT
Penumbral Lunar Eclipse
(penum. mag. 0.78; Saros 130)
This subtle penumbral eclipse eclipse may be visible to a skilled observer at maximum eclipse. 78% of the Moon's disc will be partially shaded by the Earth (none of it will be in total shadow), which will cause a gentle shadow gradient across its disc at maximum; the eclipse as a whole will last 3 hours and 40 minutes.
12 Jun, 2606 AD
max: 23:14 UT
Penumbral Lunar Eclipse
(penum. mag. 0.66; Saros 130)
This subtle penumbral eclipse eclipse may be visible to a skilled observer at maximum eclipse. 66% of the Moon's disc will be partially shaded by the Earth (none of it will be in total shadow), which will cause a gentle shadow gradient across its disc at maximum; the eclipse as a whole will last 3 hours and 24 minutes.
23 Jun, 2624 AD
max: 06:45 UT
Penumbral Lunar Eclipse
(penum. mag. 0.53; Saros 130)
This very subtle penumbral eclipse eclipse will be essentially invisible to the naked eye; though it will last 3 hours and 6 minutes, just 53% of the Moon's disc will be in partial shadow (with no part of it in complete shadow).
4 Jul, 2642 AD
max: 14:13 UT
Penumbral Lunar Eclipse
(penum. mag. 0.40; Saros 130)
This very subtle penumbral eclipse eclipse will be essentially invisible to the naked eye; though it will last 2 hours and 43 minutes, just 40% of the Moon's disc will be in partial shadow (with no part of it in complete shadow).
14 Jul, 2660 AD
max: 21:39 UT
Penumbral Lunar Eclipse
(penum. mag. 0.27; Saros 130)
This very subtle penumbral eclipse eclipse will be essentially invisible to the naked eye; though it will last 2 hours and 15 minutes, just 27% of the Moon's disc will be in partial shadow (with no part of it in complete shadow).
26 Jul, 2678 AD
max: 05:03 UT
Penumbral Lunar Eclipse
(penum. mag. 0.13; Saros 130)
In this extremely marginal eclipse, the Moon barely clips the edge of the Earth's penumbral shadow. This will cause a microscopic darkening of just 13% of the Moon's disc for 1 hour and 36 minutes, which will be essentially impossible to see.